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托福阅读中词汇题解题思路

编辑: 环球教育整理来自: 托福君TOEFL

  汇题在托福阅读中很重要,占了25%以上的比例。做对词汇题目有一些方法和思路,但是词汇题是这样的一种题:你认识这个单词就肯定能做对,而且能很快地做对。你不认识这个单词就是经过层层推断,耗费了很多时间有可能还是会做错,所以说解决词汇题的王道就是认识这个单词。那么,在以下内容中,托福君就为一些实例为大家详细分析如何去应对词汇题。

  01

  词汇类题目的问题的提问形式

  新托福词汇类题目的出题形式通常为:

  The word X in the passage is closest in meaning to

  用来考察考生某单词在文章上下文中意思的问题类型最为常见。

  02

  答题步骤

  第一步:在文章中定位到阴影标识的单词或短语。认识单词直接选。

  第二步:如为生词读原文,仔细阅读该词或短语所在句子。

  第三步:根据上下文含义推测含义。

  第四步:少量单词可由词根验证答案。选择答案时,不要仅仅因为某个选项符合该单词的某一个正确意思就将其作为正确选项,题目考察的是作者在文章上下文中使用了哪一个词义。

  03

  解题线索

  1. 论点对论据TS+D

  Commensal associations sometimes involve one species' obtaining food that is inadvertently exposed by another. For instance, several kinds of birds feed on insects flushed out of the grass by grazing cattle.

  The word inadvertently in the passage is closest in meaning to

  A. indefensibly

  B. substantially

  C. unintentionally

  D. partially

  拿到这个题目先看一下这个单词是否认识,如果认识就直接选出来,如果不认识就回到原文,原文说共生协会有时候认为一种物种获得食物的方法是被另一种物种inadvertently暴露的。这时候后面的句子是对这个句子的一个论据,句子说,举个例子,一些鸟类吃的昆虫是放牧的牛群从草当中驱赶出来的。再观察四个选项:A. 不能防御地;B. 大幅;C. 无意中地;D. 部分地。很显然,这个原文中与选项中最接近的答案就是无意中。最好将选好的答案再带到原文翻译一下:“一种物种获得食物的方法是被另一种物种无意中暴露的。一些鸟类吃的昆虫是放牧的牛群从草当中驱赶出来的。”这类题目在做题的过程中要注意一些标志词:For example, For instance, Take…for example, Evidences come from, Like…, As…

  2. 前后搭配

  Members of poor peasant families spun or wove cloth and linens at home for scant remuneration, in an attempt to supplement meager family income.

  The word meager in the passage is closest in meaning to

  A. very necessary

  B. very low

  C. traditional

  D. primary

  这道题目如果认识单词就直接选,如果不认识单词,就看原文。原文说贫困的农民家庭的成员在家里织布,后一句说是为了支持他们meager的家庭收入,根据前后搭配,显然是微薄的家庭收入,所以就选B。

  3. 并列信息

  …Absenteeism and lateness hurt productivity and since work was specialized, disrupted the regular factory routine. Industrialization not only produced a fundamental change in the way work was organized; it transformed the very nature of work.

  The word disrupted in the passage is closest in meaning to

  A. prolonged

  B. established

  C. followed

  D. upset

  disrupt在文章句子中出现and连接的并列信息hurt, 根据这一并列信息,我们可以得出disrupt在此句中的意思为与hurt并列的信息,所以此题选D。在这类题目中要注意这些连接词and、or、as well as、not only…but also、some…others…。

  4. 因果逻辑

  In 1815 he published the first modern geological map “A Map of the Strata of England and Wales with a Part of Scotland”, map so meticulously researched that it can still be used today.

  The word meticulously in the passage is closest in meaning to

  A. carefully

  B. quickly

  C. frequently

  D. obviously

  这道题目中meticulously可能有很多同学不认识,但是根据因果逻辑,原文说这个地图是如此怎样地被研究,以至于直到今天还在使用,选项中最为接近的意思应该是仔细的研究,只有仔细的研究才导致这个地图直到今天仍然被沿用。在做这类题目时要关注原文中表示逻辑关系的引导词,比如Due to / Given by / Since / derive from / stem from Therefore / So / Hence / …follows / Enough…to… / too…to… / So…that…

  5. 反向逻辑

  The Jovian planets have very thick atmospheres consisting of varying amounts of hydrogen, helium, methane, and ammonia. By comparison, the terrestrial planets have meager atmospheres at best.

  The word meager in the passage is closest in meaning to

  A. rich

  B. thin

  C. unique

  D. complex

  这道题原文说类木行星有很厚的大气层,然而类地行星有meager的大气层,根据反向逻辑,类地行星的大气层肯定是与厚相反的,所以应该是很薄的大气层,所以这道题目选B。在反向逻辑中要注意以下的标志词:

  表示让步:Even / Although / Despite

  表示转折:But / Yet / However

  表示对比:Whereas / While / In contrast / On the other hand

  6. 词根词缀

  The undisputed pre-Columbian presence in Oceania of the sweet potato, which is a New World domesticate, has sometimes been used to support Heyerdahl’s “American Indians in the Pacific” theories.

  The word undisputed in the passage is closest in meaning to

  A. mysterious

  B. unexpected

  C. acknowledged

  D. significant

  这个题目中undisputed, un是一个表示否定的前缀,dispute大多数同学认识,这个单词是指争辩,那么根据前缀un就知道undisputed指不能争辩,或者无可争辩,所以选项里面应该选C, 大家都承认的,都接受的。


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